ALBERTO GIACOMETTI was born October 10, 1901, in Borgonovo, Switzerland, and grew up in the nearby town of Stampa. His father, Giovanni, was a Post-Impressionist painter. From 1919 to 1920, he studied painting at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and sculpture and drawing at the Ecole des Arts et Métiers in Geneva. In 1920, he traveled to Italy, where he was impressed by the works of Alexander Archipenko and Paul Cézanne at the Venice Biennale. He was also deeply affected by African and Egyptian art and by the masterpieces of Giotto and Tintoretto. In 1922, Giacometti settled in Paris, making frequent visits to Stampa, and occasionally attended Antoine Bourdelle’s sculpture classes.
In 1927, the artist moved into a studio with his brother, Diego, his lifelong companion and assistant, and exhibited his sculpture for the first time at the Salon des Tuileries, Paris. His first show in Switzerland, shared with his father, was held at the Galerie Aktuaryus, Zurich, in 1927. The following year, Giacometti met André Masson, and by 1930 he was a participant in the Surrealist circle until 1934. His first solo show took place in 1932 at the Galerie Pierre Colle, Paris. In 1934, his first American solo exhibition opened at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York. During the early 1940s, he became friends with Simone de Beauvoir, Pablo Picasso, and Jean-Paul Sartre. From 1942, Giacometti lived in Geneva, where he associated with the publisher Albert Skira.
He returned to Paris in 1946. In 1948, he was given a solo show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York. The artist’s friendship with Samuel Beckett began around 1951. In 1955, he was honored with retrospectives at the Arts Council Gallery, London, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. He received the Sculpture Prize at the 1961 Carnegie International in Pittsburgh and the Grand Prize for Sculpture at the 1962 Venice Biennale, where he was given his own exhibition area. In 1965, Giacometti exhibitions were organized by the Tate Gallery, London, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark, and the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. That same year, he was awarded the Grand Prix National des Arts by the French government. Giacometti died January 11, 1966, in Chur.
A pioneer of the British Pop Art movement in the early 1960s alongside Richard Hamilton, David Hockney gained recognition for his semi-abstract paintings on the theme of homosexual love before it was decriminalized in England in 1967. In We Two Boys Clinging Together (1961), red-painted couples embrace one other while floating amidst fragments from a Walt Whitman poem. After moving to California at the end of 1963, Hockney began painting scenes of the sensual and uninhibited life of athletic young men, depicting swimming pools, palm trees, and perpetual sunshine. Experimenting with photography in the mid-1970s, Hockney went on to create his famous photocollages with Polaroids and snapshot prints arranged in a grid formation, pushing the two-dimensionality of photography to the limit, fragmenting the monocular vision of the camera and activating the viewer in the process. A versatile artist, Hockney has produced work in almost every medium—including full-scale opera set designs, prints, and drawings using cutting-edge technology such as fax machines, laser photocopiers, computers, and even iPhones and iPads.
British, b. 1937, Bradford, United Kingdom, based in Yorkshire, United Kingdom
2015 Sohyun Bae at RH Contemporary Art, New York City
2011 Subliminal Icons: SoHyun Bae and Traditional Korean Art IN CONTEXT,
Curated by Mario Diacono, Kang Collection, NYC
2009 Adorned/Unadorned: SoHyun Bae/Fathi Hassan,
Skoto Gallery, New York City (two-person)
2008 Persimmons and Birds: SoHyun Bae, Philip Kang Gallery, Seoul
2005 Wrapped Shards, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2004 An Ode to the Women of Josun Dynasty, Nikola Rukai Gallery, Toronto
2000 SoHyun Bae, Skoto Gallery, New York City
1998 Kore, Mario Diacono Gallery, Boston
1997 Painting as Prayer, Harvard University Center for World Religions, Cambridge
1997 An Ode to the Women of Josun Dynasty, Harvard University Yenching Institute, Cambridge
1994 SoHyun Bae, Harvard University Hilles Library Art Gallery, Cambridge
Selected Group Exhibition
2014 Archive of Korean-American Artists, Part 2, Queens Museum and Korean Cultural Center/Ahl
Foundation, New York City
2013 Paint: Selected Artists, Nikola Rukaj Gallery, Toronto
2012 20th Anniversary Exhibition, Skoto Gallery, NYC
2011 Group Exhibition, Skoto Gallery, NYC
2010 SoHyun Bae's Egg Woman II on View March 16 - November 14, 2011, Asian Art Museum of
San Francisco, SF
2010 Abundance, Kang Collection, New York City
2010 Group Exhbition, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2009 Triple Light: SoHyun Bae, Shil-Il Kim, Ran Hwang, Museo Nacional di Visual Artes,
2009 Group Exhibition, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2008 The Korean International Art Fair, Seoul
2008 The Shanghai Art Fair, Shanghai
2008 Gallery Artists, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2007 Korean Artists in the World: New York, Seoul Arts Center Hangaram Museum, Seoul
2007 Concurrence Divergence: Three Korean Women Painters - Wonsook Kim, SoHyun Bae,
Changsoon Oh, Kang Collection Korean Art, New York City
2007 The International Asian Art Fair, New York City
2006 The International Asian Art Fair, New York City
2006 Contemporary Art Asia, Sotheby's, New York City
2006 Mostly Ink, Kang Collection, New York City
2006 Group Exhibition, Rosenberg and Kaufman Fine Art, New York City
2004 Selected Works, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2004 San Francisco Arts of Pacific Asia, San Francisco
2004 Per l'Europa, Bibliotecca Lame, Bologna
2003 Group Exhibition, Rosenberg and Kaufman Fine Art, New York City
2003 Works on Paper, Sanford L. Smith & Associates, Ltd., New York City
2003 The International Art Fair, Chicago
2003 New American Paintings, Nikoa Rukaj Gallery, Toronto
2003 Hundred Years, Hundred Dreams, Space World, Long Island City
2003 On and Off the Wall: New York Foundation for the Arts Painting Fellows, Philips, de Pury &
Luxembourg, New York City
2003 The Affordable Art Fair, New York City
2003 Arts of Asia & oceania Show, Santa Monica
2003 Toronto International Art Fair, Toronto
2002 Group Exhibition, Andrew Bae Gallery, Chicago
2001 Presence, Skoto Gallery, New York City
2001 Stories, Gallery Korea, New York City
1994 Thesis Exhibition, Boston University Art Gallery, Boston
1993 Juried Group Exhibition by Lois Dodd and Rosemary Trockel, The Bowery Gallery, New York City
1992 Alumni Exhibition, Rhode Island School of Desig, Providence
1992 Invitational Exhibition, De Havilland Fine Art, Boston
1990 Group Exhibition, William Busta Gallery, Cleveland
1988 Group Exhibition, Princeton University, Princeton
1986 Group Exhibition, Yale University East Rock Institute, New Haven
2007 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship in Fine Art
2002 New York Foundation for the Arts Fellowship in Painting
2000 Pollock-Krasner Foundation, Inc. Grant
2000 Artist Residency, The Corporation of Yaddo
1996 National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship in conjunction with Virginia Center for Creative Arts
1993 Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture Full Scholarship
1991 Vermont Studio Center Critic's Scholarship
1986 Chautauqua Summer Institute Jenning's Scholarship
The Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA
The Peabody Archaeological Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
The Museum of Modern Art, Finland
Gana Art Center, Seoul, Korea
Kang Collection, New York City
Woods Collection, Lincoln, NE
Mario Diacono, Boston, MA
Neal, Gerber and Eisenberg, Chicago, IL
The Ritz Carlton Hotel, Dubai
Numerous Private Collections
Milcah Bassel is a multidisciplinary artist based in Jersey City and Tel Aviv. Her work is an experiential and imaginative investigation of body-space relations and notions of emptiness incorporating installation, performance, drawing, photography, and other media. She holds a Post-Baccalaureate in Studio Art from Brandeis University (2011) and an MFA in Visual Art from Mason Gross School of the Arts, Rutgers University (2013) where she is currently a part-time lecturer. For over a decade Bassel has studied and practiced bodywork methods and healing arts which also inform her work.
Bassel has exhibited and performed in galleries, museums, art fairs, and pop-up spaces both nationally and internationally with recent shows at the Newark Museum, Zimmerli Art Museum, Soho20 Gallery, Whitebox, William Paterson University, Kniznick Gallery at Brandeis University, The Gateway, Project For Empty Space, and Hanina Gallery in Tel Aviv, among others. Art fairs include PULSE and EAB in New York, UNTITLED and Select in Miami. Residencies include ACRE (WI, 2012), a Brodsky Center residency funded by an NEA grant (NJ, 2014), Hadassah-Brandeis Institute Artist-In-Residence (MA, 2015); she was recently awarded a STAR fellowship at Guttenberg Arts (NJ) and will attend the Bronx Museum AIM program (NY) in 2017.
She is always looking for unusual and overlooked spaces to reimagine, interact with, and transform.
PIERRE BONNARD was born on October 3, 1867, in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. He began law studies in Paris in 1887. That same year, Bonnard also attended the Académie Julian and in 1888 entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he met Ker-Xavier Roussel and Edouard Vuillard, who became his lifelong friends. Thus Bonnard gave up law to become an artist, and, after brief military service, in 1889 he joined the group of young painters called the Nabis (the prophets), which was organized by Paul Sérusier and included Maurice Denis, Paul Ranson, Roussel, Vuillard, and others. The Nabis, influenced by Paul Gauguin and Japanese prints, experimented with arbitrary color, expressive line, a wide range of mediums, and flat, patterned surfaces.
In 1890 Bonnard shared a studio with Vuillard and Denis, and he began to make color lithographs. The following year he met Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Also in 1891 he had his first show at the Salon des Indépendants and in the Nabis’s earliest exhibitions at Le Barc de Boutteville. Bonnard exhibited with the Nabis until they disbanded in 1900. He worked in a variety of mediums; for example, he frequently made posters and illustrations for La Revue blanche, and in 1895 he designed a stained-glass window for Louis Comfort Tiffany. His first solo show, at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1896, included paintings, posters, and lithographs. In 1897 Ambroise Vollard published the first of many albums of Bonnard’s lithographs and illustrated books.
In 1903 Bonnard participated in the first Salon d’Automne and in the Vienna Secession, and from 1906 he was represented by Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris. He traveled abroad extensively and worked at various locations in Normandy, the Seine valley, and the south of France (he bought a villa in Le Cannet near Cannes in 1925), as well as in Paris. The Art Institute of Chicago mounted a major exhibition of the work of Bonnard and Vuillard in 1933, and the Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized Bonnard retrospectives in 1946 and 1964. Bonnard died on January 23, 1947, in Le Cannet, France at age 80.
Geneviève CLAISSE, born in 1935 in France, a relative to Auguste Herbin. Her approach to painting was influenced by reading Art d’Aujourd’hui, Tribune of Geometrical Abstraction.
1958 First solo exhibits in the Galerie Caille in Cambrai and Galerie Hybler in Paris.
1961 First exhibit in the Galerie Denise René in Paris where she regularly exhibited in the following years.
1965 + Focused work on color (Cercles, ADN)
1967 Museum of Fine Arts of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Biennale of Paris.
1968 “Art Optique” at the Museum of Fine Arts of Oslo
1972 Modern Art Center PF Alençon
1983 Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille
1989 Musée Matisse du Cateau-Cambrésis
Giorgio CAVALLON was born in Sorio, Italy, in 1904. He immigrated to the United States in 1920. In 1926, Cavallon enrolled in the National Academy of Design in New York. Upon graduating, he moved to the rich artistic community of Provincetown. There, he befriended Charles Hawthorne and Hans Hofmann. The time that Cavallon spent in Provincetown cultivated in him a lifelong commitment to his artistic goals and communal spirit.
In 1934, Cavallon was employed in the Works Progress Administration/ Federal Art Project (WPA/FAP) Easel & Mural Division as Arshile Gorky’s assistant. In 1936, Cavallon participated in the formation of the American Abstract Artists group. These artists abandoned art history’s traditional focus on subject matter. They were committed to illuminating the aesthetic qualities of their materials and to the production of beautiful ideas. By the end of the 1940’s, Giorgio Cavallon had connected to the early generation of New York School Abstract Expressionist artists. He was a charter member of The Club and participated in the Ninth Street Show in 1949.
Cavallon’s works featured soft and irregular woven rectangles. They were rendered with Italianate sensitivity to radiating color. His art focuses on sensitivity towards form in space. Cavallon is praised for his unique signature style.
In 1988, Cavallon was inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in New York City. Cavallon died in 1989, in New York City, New York at the age of 85.
SONIA DELAUNAY (nėe TERK) was born November 14, 1885. She was a Russian-born, Jewish-French artist who, with her husband Robert Delaunay and others, cofounded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. Her work extends to painting, textile design and stage set design. She was the first living female artist to have a retrospective exhibition at the Louvre in 1964, and in 1975 was named an officer of the French Legion of Honor.
Born Sarah Ilinitchna Stern, she was probably born in Gradizhske, then in the Russian Empire, today in Poltava Oblast in the Ukraine. At a young age she moved to St. Petersburg, where her mother’s brother, Henri Terk, an affluent Jewish lawyer, and his wife Anna adopted her. She assumed the name Sonia Terk and received a privileged upbringing. She spent summers in Finland and traveled widely in Europe. She attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe, Germany until 1905.
At the age of 20, she enrolled at the Académie de la Palette in Montparnasse. In Paris she continued to study, work, and live for the rest of her life. She married Robert Delaunay in 1910 and worked with him to create a new form of Cubism (Orphism). The Delaunays’ friend, the poet and art critic Guillaume Apollinaire, coined the term Orphism to describe the Delaunays’ version of cubism in 1913, which used bright colours, and a feeling of rhythm to produce a unique and new world of expression.
During the war years they lived in Spain until their return to Paris in 1921. In 1923, for the staging of Tristan Tzara’s play Le Cœur à Gaz, she designed the set and costumes. In 1924 she opened a fashion studio together with Jacques Heim. Over these years she developed her wide-ranging talents in the design of theatrical costume, set design, interiors, textiles, book covers, and fashion, remaining active in these areas for over half a century.
In 1966 she published Rythmes-Couleurs (color-rhythms), with 11 of her gouaches reproduced as pochoirs and texts by Jacques Damase.
Sonia Delaunay died December 5, 1979, in Paris, aged 94. She was buried in Gambais, next to Robert Delaunay’s grave.
ANDRE DERAIN was a French painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer and collector, born June 10, 1880 in Chatou, Yvelines. He was a leading exponent of Fauvism. In early 1908 he destroyed most of his work to concentrate on tightly constructed landscape paintings, which were a subtle investigation of the work of Cézanne. After World War I his work became more classical, influenced by the work of such artists as Camille Corot. In his sculpture he drew upon his knowledge and collection of non-Western art. Derain died in Garches in September 8, 1954, at the age of 74.
SAM FRANCIS was born Samuel Lewis Francis on June 25, 1923, in San Mateo, California. He began painting in 1944 after being diagnosed with spinal tuberculosis, resulting from a U.S. Army Air Corps accident. In 1947 he studied privately with painter David Park, and soon gave up his intended medical studies, earning a BA in 1949 and an MA in 1950 at the University of California, Berkeley.
He experimented with the dominant and emerging styles of the late 1940s, particularly Abstract Expressionism and Surrealism, eventually developing a personal style of abstraction focused on dripping, cell-like forms, an allover instability, and sensitivity to color and light, as in Opposites (1950). In 1950 Francis moved to Paris and attended the Atelier Fernand Léger, where he was exposed to the work of Pierre Bonnard and Henri Matisse, which reinvigorated his interest in light and vibrant color, visible in his 1953 painting Big Red. Producing such work led to his association with Art Informel, although Francis never fully associated with any movement. A visit to Japan in 1957 coincided with an opening up of expanses of white space in much of his work, and his subsequent move to a larger studio in Paris resulted in the production of large-scale paintings and mural commissions, including a 1959 painting for the Chase Manhattan Bank, New York.
Francis returned to California in 1962 and resumed painting with combinations of bright colors. Clement Greenberg’s landmark exhibition Post Painterly Abstraction (1964) at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, which focused on paintings emphasizing color over gesture, included works by Francis. In the late 1960s, however, color increasingly vanished from his canvases. In 1973 he formed a lithography production company, which published his own prints. Over the next decades, Francis’s style in painting and print production evolved from the depiction of bright, centrally placed shapes evocative of Tibetan mandalas (influenced by Jungian psychology) to his late-1970s exploration of more severe grid structures to a 1980s fascination with snakelike forms and colorful drips. His final decades of artistic production paralleled a succession of publishing, nonprofit, and visionary enterprises: in addition to his lithography studio, Francis formed a wind harvesting and alternative energy company in 1975; helped organize the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, in 1980; formed the Lapis Press, which focused on eclectic scholarship, in 1984; created a naturopathy-based medical research center in 1987; and founded the Sam Francis Art Museum in 1990 to perpetuate his artistic legacy and support charitable donations.
Galerie Nina Dausset, Paris, gave Francis his first solo exhibition in 1952, and he has been the subject of dozens more at institutions that include the Pasadena Art Museum (1959); Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (1967); Centre national d’art contemporain, Fondation Rothschild, Paris (1968); Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1972); Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston (1979); and Museum of Modern Art, Toyama, Japan (1988). He was included in 12 Americans at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1956), and in Documenta, Kassel, West Germany (1964). In the last year of his life, Francis, suffering from cancer and unable to use his right hand because of a fall, painted 150 small works with his left hand. Francis died on November 4, 1994, in Santa Monica, California.
NAUM GABO was born Naum Neemia Pevsner on August 5, 1890. Gabo was a Jewish American sculptor of Belorussian birth. He was brought up in the Russian town of Bryansk, where his father owned a metallurgy business. Early paintings display his romantic and literary spirit, but in 1910 he went to the University of Munich to study medical and scientific subjects (1910–12), then philosophy and history of art (1912–14). The lectures of Heinrich Wölfflin and the writings of Henri Bergson were significant influences on him at this time. Gabo also studied engineering at the Technische Hochschule, Munich (1912–14), where there was a large collection of mathematical models. During World War I he took refuge in Norway (1914–17) and started working with his ‘stereometric method’ of construction, one of several techniques he adopted from such models, and through which he made a significant contribution to the development of the language of Constructivism. This enabled him to make images from sheet materials such as cardboard, plywood and galvanized iron, incorporating space in the body of the work and thereby denying the solidity of matter. Around this time he adopted the surname Gabo to distinguish himself from his brother, the artist Antoine Pevsner.
Gabo’s first constructed works were figurative, but following his return to Russia in 1917 he started to make non-figurative reliefs and towers from transparent plastic and glass. In 1920, in conjunction with an open-air exhibition on Tverskoy Boulevard, Gabo, together with his brother, published his Realistic Manifesto, summarizing his views on art. As with all Gabo’s writings this manifesto is poetically forceful and was highly influential. Rejecting Cubism and Futurism Gabo called for an art for a new epoch, a public art recognizing space and time as its basic elements and espousing construction and kineticism. These ideas are embodied in Kinetic Construction (Standing Wave, 1919–20).
In 1922 Gabo travelled to Berlin in connection with the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung, held at the Van Diemen Gallery, in which he was well-represented with about ten works. There he met Katherine S. Dreier, his first important patron, and he soon came into contact with many artists and architects, such as Hans Richter, Kurt Schwitters, Hugo Häring, the brothers Hans and Wassili Luckhardt and artists of the Bauhaus. Throughout the 1920s Gabo continued to employ glass, metal (sometimes painted black or white) and plastics in his works, which remained architectonic or monumental in conception. He also designed a stage set for Diaghilev’s ballet La Chatte, first performed in Monte Carlo in 1927, and in 1931 he submitted plans to the competition for the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow. In 1930 he had an important one-man show at the Kestner-Gesellschaft in Hannover, and in 1931 he became a member of the group Abstraction–Création in Paris.
By 1933 Gabo had moved to Paris, but in 1935 he made a brief visit to London, where he settled in 1936. There he made friends with Herbert Read, and with Leslie Martin and Ben Nicholson, with whom in 1937 he edited Circle. Through Dr John Sisson, Gabo was introduced to perspex, the new plastic developed by Imperial Chemical Industries that he employed in some of his best-known works, such as Translucent Variation on Spheric Theme (1937) and Spiral Theme (1941). Gabo made over 20 free-standing variations on the basic ‘spheric’ theme, differing in size and materials. More elaborate developments include Model for ‘Spheric Construction: Fountain’ (1937/8), Bas-relief on a Circular Surface, Semi-spheric (1938) and Construction in Space, with Net (1952). During World War II Gabo lived in Cornwall (1939–46), and there he started using nylon monofilament as in his works entitled Linear Construction in Space (e.g. Linear Construction in Space No. 1 (variation), 1942–3). Materials were in short supply during the war, but Gabo was able to continue to paint and carve. In 1943 he was commissioned through the Design Research Unit to design a car for the Jowett Car Company. In 1946 Gabo moved to the USA, where he became a close friend of Lewis Mumford. Following a major exhibition of his works in New York in 1948, he began to receive commissions for public projects. The first of these, for the Esso Building at the Rockefeller Center (1949), New York, remained unexecuted, but in 1951 he completed his Construction Suspended in Space for the Baltimore Museum of Art. There followed an important commission for the Bijenkorf Construction in Rotterdam (h. c. 25 m, 1956–7), through which Gabo intended to celebrate the reconstruction of the city following World War II. Ultimately related to the ‘spheric theme’, this work was developed directly from his entry to the international competition for which he submitted a Model for a Monument to the Unknown Political Prisoner (410 mm, 1952), which gained one of the five second prizes. In the early 1950s Gabo took up wood-engraving, which he used until the mid-1970s to explore the same concepts as his sculpture.
Gabo’s work does not fit simply into the machine aesthetic. As he wrote in 1957: ‘Not the Machine—the creative spirit of man is my inspiration’. An artist of diverse interests, Gabo was fascinated and influenced by scientific and mathematical images, whether visually or verbally described, and particularly by the enigmas of science. While he valued supremely the autonomy of the artist, he also sought to integrate not only sculpture, architecture and design but also art and science. Thus he felt that his ‘constructive idea’ could serve as a philosophy not only for art but for life in general. Gabo died on August 23, 1977.
ARSHILE GORKY was born Vostanik Manoog Andoyan in 1904 near Van, Turkey. He was a preeminent American Modernist artist of Armenian descent. His diverse body of was a unique conflation of the Surrealist, Cubist, and Expressionist artistic styles. His innovative stylistic fusion prepared the way for the emergence of Abstract Expressionism in its various artistic forms.
Many of Gorky’s works were also very personal in their content, reflecting on the artist’s traumatic past as a genocide survivor. As a child, the artist survived the genocide of the Armenian people by the Ottoman Turks. With his family displaced and dispersed en route to the Russian-controlled Armenia, his mother died of starvation in Gorky’s arms in 1919. His father, however, had escaped the Turkish military draft by moving to the United States in 1910 and settling in Providence, Rhode Island. Gorky would join his father in 1920 at the age of sixteen after leaving the war-ridden territory of the collapsed Russian Empire. The painful nostalgic sentiments for the lost homeland remained a prominent theme in Gorky’s oeuvre.
Gorky remained largely a self-taught artist before his immigration to the United States. Here he enrolled in the New School of Design in Boston, which he attended from 1922 to 1924. The new land also provided for the artist’s initial exposure to the modernist artistic discourse, for which the founding fathers, such as the French Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne, would exercise a great deal of influence. Around 1925 Gorky moved to New York where he swiftly penetrated the emerging artistic milieu and enjoyed an expansive introduction to groundbreaking innovations of Pablo Picasso as well as the early work of Joan Miró.
It was in New York where Gorky met and developed a personal and artistic friendship with such artists as Stuart Davis, John Graham, and fellow émigré Willem de Kooning. New York’s climate of constant artistic exchange proved auspicious for the formation of Gorky’s early style which relied heavily on Cézanne’s compositional method and Picasso’s Synthetic Cubist forms. The colorful palette of the Fauves and other European Expressionists, among which German-based Wassily Kandinsky proved to be a major avant-garde force, were also formative influences on the artist.
While in New York, Gorky enrolled at both the National Academy of Design and the Grand Central School of Art, where he also taught until 1931. It was also the time the artist changed his name, from Vosdanik Adoyan to Arshile Gorky, in order to divorce himself from the negative perception of the Armenian refugees in the United States. The change was also made to claim a certain connection to the Russian artistic milieu. For a while Gorky even claimed to be a relative of the prominent Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who enjoyed a considerable fame in the West.
In the 1930’s Gorky’s work began to enjoy public recognition. In 1930, he was included in the group show of the emerging artists assembled by Alfred Barr, the influential director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The year 1931 marked the first solo exhibition of Gorky’s paintings at the Mellon Galleries in Philadelphia. From 1935 to 1941, the artist worked under the WPA Federal Art Project alongside Willem de Kooning, a major government initiative to provide artists with work at the time of the Great Depression. One of the projects conceived by Gorky for the WPA was the murals at the Newark Airport in Newark, New Jersey. Also in 1935, four of Gorky’s paintings were included in the famed exhibition mounted by The Whitney Museum of American Art titled Abstract Painting in America, which attracted a growing attention to the artist from critics and public alike. In 1938 Gorky held his first solo show in New York at the Boyer Galleries.
By the 1940’s Gorky would move into an entirely new direction in his painting: an innovative technique of paint application which anticipated, if not inspired, the Action Painting method of the Abstract Expressionist painters of the following decade.
The stylistic shift in Gorky’s work is best understood through the analysis of the New York context, namely a major influx of European artists and intellectuals who moved to the city before and during the Second World War. Among these individuals were Josef Albers and Hans Hofmann who escaped Hitler’s Reich and established themselves as influential art teachers and theorists in New York; Erwin Panofsky, a founding father of the academic discipline of Art History in its modern form, who taught at New York and Princeton Universities; prominent German Surrealist painter Max Ernst and the primary theorist of Surrealist movement André Breton, who fled the occupied city of Paris; and Piet Mondrian and Ferdinand Léger, who brought their unique pictorial modes as their only luggage. The confluence of these individuals made New York an ever more boisterous and diverse artistic ground, where the iconic names of Modern painting with all its variety of styles intermingled and intertwined, preparing the way for the emergence of an inimitable New York style of painting generally known as Abstract Expressionism.
He died in Sherman, Connecticut in 1948.
American, (born 1940, Baltimore, MD)
2003 Nikola Rukaj Gallery. Toronto, Canada
2003 The Century association, New York, NY
2003 Sears- Peyton Gallery, New York, NY
2000 Linda Schwartz Gallery, Cincinnati, OH
1999 Sears-Peyton Gallery, New York, NY
1999 Galerie Escalier, Vertillac, France (2-person)
1998 Quartet Editions, New York, NY
1996 Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests in Concord, NH (MacDowell Centennial Celebration)
1995 Atea Ring Gallery, Essex, NY
1994 Icon Contemporary Art, Brunswick, NY
1993 Galbreath Gallery, Lexington, NY
1992 Cava Gallery, Philadelphia, PA
1991 THE Gallery, New York, NY
1990 Cava Gallery, Philadelphia, PA
1989 Trabia-MacAfee Gallery, New York, NY
1988 Trabia-MacAfee Gallery, New York, NY
1987 A.I.R. Gallery, New York, NY
1987 Cava Gallery, Philadelphia, PA
2001 Grant, Hollybrook Foundation, Minneapolis, MN
1998-1999 Pollack-Krasner Foundation, NY
1995, 98 Hollybrook Foundation, Minneapolis, MN
1988, 89, 93 MacDowell Colony, Peterborough, NH
1988 Milton & Sally Avery MacDowell Fellow
General Electric Company
Library of Congress
Prudential Insurance Company of America
Fred Alger & Company
LESTER JOHNSON was born in 1919, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He studied at the Minneapolis School of Art, the ST. Paul Art School, and The School of the Art Institute of Chicago from 1942 to 1947. In 1947, Johnson moved to New York to pursue a career in art. There, he was embraced by the bustling bohemian lifestyle of SoHo. He worked as the artist-in-residence at the University of Wisconsin, and as a professor of painting at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. In 1969, Johnson was promoted to the position of Director of Studies for Graduate Painting at the School of Art and Architecture at Yale University.
Upon moving to New York, Johnson encountered the Abstract Expressionist movement. He was drawn to their democracy of subject matter, freedom of movement on the canvas and “All-Over” painting style. An associate of the collective, he was voted into the Eighth Street Club (the famous weekly gathering of the Abstract Expressionists). Johnson painted the joys and sorrows of the everyman on the streets of New York. His boxy figures were rendered sensually. Areas were applied with thick impasto or thin washes; paint was either clumped or dripping. Johnson would scratch on the human features.
Johnson had two distinctive fazes of his art practice. His earlier faze , which occurred in the 1960s, focused on isolated and embattled lonely human figures. They appeared still or stumbling, and always broken. The expressions on these figures were stoic or grimly defiant. These works featured loose and versatile expressionist brushstrokes. They were highly painterly. These techniques allowed for the emergence of the life and vigor captured within the collection of grave and solitary subjects. His “All-Over” technique created the illusion that the people were being confronted with brutal external forces. They were compressed from all sides by their environment.
Later, Johnson abandoned his scenes of isolation to paint to bustle of crowds. The figures were rendered with his signature flattened and scratched style. In contrast to his first series, these painting are vividly colourful. This series features men and women dressed in in decorative prints. Unlike his lonely figures wearing suits, these men and women wore casual t-shirts and dresses. The patterns that clothe Johnsonʼs subjects speak to the abstract movements occurring all around him. The works in his second series featured canvases which were equally congested. However the subjects moved with ease around the expansive canvas, enjoying the bustle of the crowd.
Lester Johnson died in 2010 at the age of 91 in Westhampton, New York.
Awards & Prizes
1987 Elected Associate National Academy of Design
1978 Brandeis University Creative Arts Award for Painting
1973 Guggenheim Fellowship
1961 Longview Fellowship Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1942 Midwestern Artists Competition 1st prize
1941 St. Paul Gallery Scholarship
1940-41 The Presidentʼs Scholarship Minneapolis School of Fine Arts
1939 Alfred Pillsbury Scholarship
HENRI LEBASQUE was born in 1865, in Champigné, France. He studied painting at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in Paris. There, he began to exhibit with several renowned artistsʼ associations of the time such as “Les Nabis” (the prophets) and the “Intimists.” Lebasque frequently participated in the acclaimed Salons of Paris. In 1903, Labesque was instrumental in the formation of “Salon d’Automne” with his close friend Henri Matisse. This Salon hosted the débuted exhibition of “Les Fauves” (wild beasts).
In the early years of his career, Lebasqueʼs primary influences ranged from Luce to Seuratte. His painting were created using pointillism as a predominant technique. The artist displayed his background in colour theory through the use of complementary colours in shading. In the early 1900ʼs, Lebasque was exposed to Fauvism. The Fauvistsʼ painterly qualities and bright colours profoundly inspired him. Lebasque began to incorporate flatness of form and wild colour choices into his own works.
In 1924, Lebaque moved to the French Riviera to pursue a continued education in visual arts. The move catalyzed a thematic transition and a radical change in his colour palatte. The artist refocused his attention to paint scenes of light and cheer. This included a prevalence of subject matter pertaining to the artistʼs own family and the vegetation of Saint Tropez.
Lebasqueʼs paintings are praised for their wide range of bright colour and intimacy with the subject matter. They exude liveliness and optimism. Throughout his years of practice, Lebasque cultivated a reputation in the art world as, “the painter of joy and light”. In 1937, Henri Lebasque died in Le Cannet, Alpes Maritimes.
1956 Oeuvres Choisies de Henri Lebasque, Galerie Vendome
1937 Exposition des Maîtres de lʼArt Independants, Petit Palais Paris
1915 Panama – Pacific Intʼl, San Francisco
1905 Salon Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris
Rene Marcil was a painter, draftsman, fashion illustrator and commercial artist.
Though he was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and died in Toronto, Ontario, Canada he lived most of his professional life outside Canada. His primary residences since 1941 were: New York City (1941 - 1952); Paris, France (1952 - 1965); London, England, 1965 - 1980); and Tourrettes-sur-Loup, France [15 miles north of Cannes, 10 miles east of Nice] (1981 - 1991). (1)
His mediums were oil, acrylic, watercolor, gouache*, pencil crayon, graphite, chalk, charcoal, marker, mixed mediums and pen & ink. His subjects were social commentary, nudes, sex, figures, faces, landscapes, interiors, still life, celebrities and as an abstractionist - shape, color and texture. His styles were Expressionism*, Fauvism*, Realism*, Surrealism* and Geometric Abstraction*. AskART have some good illustrations of his work.
His formal art education includes the École des Beaux Arts*, Montreal (at age 14), where he studied from 1931 to 1935; and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière*, Paris (c. 1952). (2)
His career includes working as a fashion illustrator for the Montreal department stores Morgan's and Eaton's; and in New York for Lord and Taylor. In Europe he worked as an independent artist creating paintings and drawings.
A selection of Marcil's erotic works were used to illustrate Robert J. Langevin's 2008 book Rene Marcil & Emile Zola: Nana, based on Emile Zola's 1880 novel Nana.
Marcil's works are frequently traded on the Canadian auction market and they're in many private collections. However, according to the Canadian Heritage Information Network* and the Quebec Museum Society, the only Canadian museum that has his works in their permanent collection is the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Halifax.
GUIDO MOLINARI was born Benito Claudio Dino Guy Molinari in Montreal on October 12 1933. His father, Charles was the noted musical director and founder of the Montreal Symphony. Molinari studied briefly at the School of Design at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (1950-51), and began making drawings and paintings combining automatic methods with a disciplined approach. He was a leader in the development of a rigorous colour abstraction in Montréal. Characteristic of his paintings in the 1960s were vertical, hard-edged bands of colour. Pictorial space in these paintings was created by the spectator’s perception of the shifting and mixing of the colours. More recently, colour in his work had been reduced to very dark values, and rather than narrow bands, the paintings were divided into 2 to 5 large vertical sections. In 1956 Molinari was a founding member of the Association des artistes non-figuratifs de Montréal. He practised abstraction in New York and was honoured with a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1967. He exhibited at the Biennale in Venice in 1968, where he was awarded the David E. Bright Foundation prize. In 1971 he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. In 1977 he participated in the Paris Biennale, and in 1980 he was awarded the Paul-Émile Borduas Prize by the Québec government. Molinari, who taught at Concordia University until 1997, exerted a powerful influence on younger artists, through his teaching, his theoretical writing and his opinions, firmly held and strongly stated. The exhibition Guido Molinari: 1951-1961, Peintures en noir et blanc was organized by the Vancouver Art Gallery in 1989 and toured the country. Guido Molinari died in Montreal on 21 February 21, 2004 at age 71.
RICHARD SEGALMAN was born in 1934, in Coney Island, New York. In 1951, he attended Parsons School of Design in New York, New York. He received further education at the Art School League and New School for Social Research, in New York. Segalman works in the mediums of pastel, watercolor, monotype and oil on paper or canvas. His works were first exhibited in Naples in 1960. Subsequently, he exhibited works in the United States, where they were received with critical acclaim.
Segalman sustained an artistic fascination with moments of casual significance. He was particularly interested in exploring interpersonal relationships and emotional ties. Segalman generally painted two or three people engaged in a domestic or natural scene. The scenes were rendered in pastel tones. The faces of his characters remained generic. The artist preferred to allow the physical dynamic and clothing of his subjects act as the conduit to their emotional state. Segalman portrayed these fleeting moments with delicacy and intimacy.
ESTEBAN VICENTE was born in Turégano, Spain in 1903. His father was an army officer and an amateur painter who took the young Vicente with him on visits to the Prado Museum. In 1920, Vicente entered military school, but left after three months. Eighteen years old, Vicente began at the School of Fine Arts of the Real Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. As a young man living in Madrid, Barcelona and Paris, he developed friendships with artists and writers. In 1928, he had his first exhibition with Juan Bonafé at the Ateneo de Madrid.
Vicente left Europe for New York City in 1936. The United States became the artist’s permanent home. His contemporaries and associates included Willem de Kooning (with whom he once shared a studio), Elaine de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Franz Kline, Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt.
He spent a good portion of his career teaching. He was among the faculty at Black Mountain College, Black Mountain, NC; the New York Studio School of Drawing, Painting and Sculpture, New York, New York and the University of California, Berkeley, among others institutions.
In addition, he received numerous awards, some of the most prestigious given to an artist in the United States and his works can be found in important collections and museums such as The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York, among others.
At the end of his life, the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Esteban Vicente, a museum in his honor, was opened in Segovia by the Spanish government. Vicente attended the museum’s opening in 1998.
Vicente died at the age of 97 in 2001 in Bridgehampton, New York, 10 days before his 98th birthday. He had a long and prosperous career, living and working with multiple generations of artists and painting well into his 90’s at his home in Bridgehampton.
The ever-versatile Alfred Leslie has been on the frontlines of many major movements in postwar American art. Early in his career, Leslie ran with the Abstract Expressionists in New York, producing immense, lush abstractions and counting Barnett Newman, Franz Kline, and critic Clement Greenberg among his close associates. From there, Leslie would experiment radically, making silkscreen boxes years before Andy Warhol’s emergence and painting hyper-realistic figurative scenes that would show alongside Chuck Close and Philip Pearlstein. “I don't think he's gotten his due,” Whitney curator Barbara Haskell once said. “I think he did fall between the cracks chronologically…I think it was difficult for people to understand his career as one unit.” Leslie was also at the forefront of experimental film, collaborating with Robert Frank to make Pull My Daisy (1959), a tribute to the Beat generation featuring Richard Bellamy, Allen Ginsberg, Alice Neel, and Larry Rivers.
American, b. 1927, Bronx, New York
ROBERT GOODNOUGH was born in in 1917 in upstate Cortland, New York. In a career that lasted more than half a century, Goodnough eluded the neat categories that art critics relied on to codify the work of the Abstract Expressionists. He moved among the second-generation members of the school but at the same time stood apart, and his work — kinetic, calligraphic dashes of primary colors in his early career, and subtle pastels beginning in the 1970s — often flirted with figuration.
Though he later evolved into a full-blown abstractionist, while at Syracuse University, he worked realistically from casts and from life. His move toward abstraction began with study with Amedee Ozenfant and Hans Hofmann in New York City, 1946-1947.
Goodnough would later teach at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, New York University and the Fieldston School in New York City. He also served as an art critic for Art News Magazine from 1950 to 1957. Goodnough became another of the tens of thousands of artists caught up in the Cubism of Pablo Picasso. He was also attracted by the stark abstractions Piet Mondrian. He combined these styles in the 1950s with that of Hofmann, his teacher, in a hybrid of Cubism and Abstract Expressionism. Since that time, like so many other abstractionists, Goodnough has been influenced by many abstract directions in art, including collage, sculpted constructions of birds and figures, and hard-edge paintings in the 1950s and 60s. From the 1970s, Goodnough has painted very large, geometric, abstract canvases.
Goodnough’s earlier work, influenced by Mondrian, Matisse and Synthetic Cubism, deployed patches and strokes of paint that suggested tumult and frenetic activity. “Some of his thicket-like designs throb with the fervor of an old symbolic representation of the Burning Bush, while others have the formal, explicit robustness of Léger,” Stuart Preston wrote in a New York Times review of a 1962 show.
In violation of abstractionist orthodoxy, he sometimes embedded images in the complex mesh of what he liked to call “color shapes.” “Charging Bull” (1958) depicts, unmistakably, a charging bull. He also experimented with collages in a manner that recalled Matisse’s cutouts and made sculptured constructions of dinosaurs — a lifelong enthusiasm.
One of Goodnough’s most striking works from this period, “Form in Motion,” is a large mural executed in 1967 for the Manufacturers Hanover Trust offices in Midtown Manhattan, its vigorous patches of color arrayed in an onrushing to-and-fro pattern suggestive of the pedestrian scrum on the city’s sidewalks.
In the early 1970s, Goodnough began shifting toward Color Field painting, usually executed in acrylic and oil, to which he added his own idiosyncrasies. In “Slate Grey Statement,” one of the first in this new style, pale dashes of color cluster on a ghostly background of silvery gray. In later paintings the bits of color, now jagged, shardlike and prismatic, take flight across the canvas like a flock of birds. In the 1980s, Goodnough returned to a style not unlike his earliest work.
Goodnough, a painter whose stylistic evolution from vibrant, Cubist-inspired abstractions to Color Field canvases made him one of the least definable members of the second-generation Abstract Expressionists, died on Oct. 2, 2010 in White Plains. He was 92 and lived in Thornwood, N.Y.
1926 - Born, St. Louis, Missouri
1929 - Moved with family to Louisville, Kentucky
1943-44, 1946-47 - Attended University of Missouri
1944-46 - U.S. Navy, University of North Carolina
1947-49 - Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris
1949-55 - Lived and worked in Paris
1956 - Returned to the United States
1956-1995 - Lived in New York City
1995-current - Resides in Bridgehampton, New York
ONE MAN EXHIBITIONS:
1951 - Galerie Arnaud, Paris
1958 - Betty Parsons Gallery, New York (1960, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1968)
1959 - Museum of Modern Art, NY, 'Sixteen Americans'
1962 - Galerie Lawrence, Paris (also 1965)
1963 - Galeria dell' Ariete, Milan
Everett Ellen Gallery, Los Angeles, California
The Phillips Collection, Washington, D. C.
1971 - Pace Gallery, New York (also 1972, 1975)
1972 - Portland Center for the Arts, Oregon
Seattle Art Museum, Washington
1973 - The Arts Club of Chicago, Illinois
Galerie Denise Rene, Paris
1975 - Hopkins Center, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH
1976 - Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, NY
1981 - Washburn Gallery (& 1982, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 97, 99, 2001, 03, 06, 09)
Doris C. Freedman Plaza, Central Park, NY, 'Sculpture Grove', Public Art Fund
1982 - Fine Arts Center, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook, NY
1986 - Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of Art, NY
1989 - Heland Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden
2000 - Guild Hall Museum, East Hampton, NY
2004 - Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, NY
2005 - The Drawing Room, East Hampton, NY
Susan Sheehan Gallery, NY (& 2006)
2011 - Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, California
2013 - Washburn Gallery, New York, NY
LongHouse Reserve, East Hampton, NY
The Drawing Room, East Hampton, NY
2014 - Washburn Gallery, New York, NY
Galerie Hervé Bize, Nancy, France
Louise Nevelson (1899-1988) was an American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures. She was born in present-day Ukraine, and emigrated with her family to the United States in the early 20th century. By the early 1930s she was attending art classes at the Arts Students League of New York, and in 1941 she had her first solo exhibitions. A student of Hans Hofmann and Chaim Gross, Nevelson experimented with early conceptual art using found objects. A figure in the international art scene, Nevelson was showcased at the 31st Venice Biennale. Her first major retrospective took place in 1967 at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Princeston University commissioned Nevelson to create a monumental outdoor steel sculpture in 1969, the same year the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, gave her a solo exhibition. Her work is seen in major collections in museums and corporations, and she remains one of the most important figures in 20th-century American sculpture.
Louise Nevelson : Beyond L12, 1977, Ink and collage on paper, signed, 22 x 30 inches